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Nutrition minérale et fertilisation du cocotier dans le monde. III

Manciot R., Ollagnier Michel, Ochs Robert. 1980. Nutrition minérale et fertilisation du cocotier dans le monde. III. Oléagineux, 35 (1) : pp. 13-27.

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Titre anglais : Mineral nutrition and fertilization of the coconut around the world. III / Titre espagnol : Nutricion mineral y fertilizacion del cocotero en el mundo. III

Abstract : The relative importance of coconut in the production of vegetable fats has shrunk in the course of the last 40 years because insufficient efforts have been made to improve the planting material and to intensify its cultivation. In particular, mineral fertilization is still an exceptional practice even though it has been shown in many countries that the use of fertilizers is perfectly profitable even on random material. It is true that the coconut graves in the big producer countries have aged and that part of them have reached an age when yield falls and the effect of fertilizers is no longer so intense. So that it is rather more in the framework of the large renovation projects now going on; that fertilization can play a major role by enabling the total expression of the potential of the new hybrid material, incomparably more productive. Potassium, chlorine and nitrogen predominate in the coconut's mineral exports. Responses to potassium fertilization are the most frequent, since the plant does not often have a chance to satisfy its needs completely in tropical soils, usually very poor in nitrogen, responses to nitrogenous fertilization are Jess frequent; can it be concluded that" invisible" contributions by the rains or by the fixing of atmospheric nitrogen have been underestimated ? As for chlorine, ,which is now considered to be an essential mineral element for coconut, because of its relative abundance in nature deficiencies are generally limited to specific situations, sheltered from the influence of the sea. Phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur also come into play, but they are often implied in multiple responses where bath the cation and anion balances have a more important role than with other cultivated plants. In terms of fertilization, this peculiarity of the coconut underlines the care which must be taken in the choice of the salts used as fertilizers. As regards the trace elements, baron sometimes plays an important part during immaturity, as it does in the oil palm, and a deficiency can provoke the sudden stoppage of growth. Iron and manganese deficiencies arc found on coral soils. It is easy to correct mineral deficiencies in the coconut. Manurings are very profitable and usually give an added value of at least three times the outlay when the balance and the quantities applied are close to the optimum. The rapid action of fertilizers on root absorption makes the coconut rather sensitive to errors in diagnosis; nevertheless, these can be avoided by using control leaf analysis and by referring to the results of field experiments set up by the support research. Fertilizer requirements vary greatly according to the quality of the soils used, and the latter range from the poorest sandy soils of the seaboard to the richest volcanic ones. These requirements, in which potassium often predominates, can be reduced considerably by restituting the husks, which consume more than half the potassium taken up by the plant. Transformed by the advent of the hybrid coconut accompanied by a rational fertilizer policy, coconut growing has become one of the best tools for development and for the improvement of the standard of living of small farmers in the tropical world. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Cocos nucifera, Nutrition des plantes, Engrais, Soufre, Bore, Fer, Manganèse, Aluminium, Cuivre, Molybdène, Zinc, Feuille, Hybride, Coprah, Huile de coco, Analyse de tissus, Zone tropicale

Mots-clés complémentaires : Diagnostic foliaire, Cocotier Nain, Cocotier Grand

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Manciot R.
  • Ollagnier Michel
  • Ochs Robert

Autres liens de la publication

Source : Cirad - Agritrop (https://agritrop.cirad.fr/453597/)

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