Findings of three types of commercially cultivated cocoa, methods and fermentation period in the Equatorial coast

Amores Fredy, Quiroz James G., Jimenez J., Decazy Bernard, Guiltinan Mark J.. 2000. Findings of three types of commercially cultivated cocoa, methods and fermentation period in the Equatorial coast. In : 13 Conférence internationale sur la recherche cacaoyère : résumés = 13 International cocoa research conference: summaries ; 13 Conferencia internacional de pesquisas em cacau : resumos ; 13 Conferencia internacional de investigacion en cacao : resumenes. Lagos : Cocoa Producers' Alliance, 2 p. Conférence Internationale sur la Recherche Cacaoyère. 13, Kota Kinabalu, Malaisie, 9 October 2000/14 October 2000.

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Autre titre : Résultats pour trois types de cacao cultivés commercialement concernant les méthodes et les durées de fermentation sur la côte équatorienne

Abstract : The bulk of cocoa production in the Equator take place in locally irrigated regions made up of a population derived from cross-breeding between National and Trinitarian hybrids which developed at the beginning of the 20th Century. From the late 70's the use of a mixture of improved clones from the National type obtained for the INIAP programme was encouraged to renovate old irrigated cocoa regions or cultivate new ones. At the end of the 80's the sowing of the Trinitarian Cocoa CCN-51 of high productivity was popularised. The genetic composition after fermentation had an influence on the taste of the cocoa. The method and duration of fermentation are two factors that determine the result of this process. The main indicator for the result is the percentage of fermented cocoa beans. The fermentation must be conducted in such a manner as to obtain the best value for the said variable. In this respect, a study was conducted to measure reaction of the main types of cocoa cultivated in the Equatorial coast using two methods and three periods of fermentation. Fermentation methods in boxes and piles were used, the latter being the most popularly known and used method in the country. Duration of fermentation was from 2, 3 and 4 days for the National Trinitarian complex; 3,4 or 5 days for the mixture of improved clones of the National type, 6 or 7 days for the Trinitarian cocoa. In each of the cases, the specimen consisted of 120 kg of fresh cocoa beans. In the case of the Trinitarian cocoa, the removal of the dough was done 48 hours before the start of fermentation. The method of fermentation led to statistical differences in the percentage of fermented cocoa beans. On the average, to calculate type of cocoa, the fermentation method in boxes produced 5% of fermented cocoa beans more than the piling method. Similarly, the length in fermentation period resulted in statistical differences in the percentage of fermented cocoa beans for each of the three groups of cocoa. In terms of the function of fermentation period, this percentage varies from 71.5 to 81.1 for the National complex X Trinitarian; 72.0 to 85.5 for the mixed improved clones of National type and 77.0 to 85.5 for the Trinitarian Cocoa CCN-51. Generally, the percentage in variables of the violet and blackish cocoa beans clearly followed the contrary tendency. The pH of dried cocoa beans was not adversely affected by the factors under observation. The exception was in the Trinitarian cocoa where the length of fermentation period significantly affected the pH, which varies from 5.3 to 5.9 after 5 to 7 days of fermentation. (Texte intégral)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Fève de cacao, Fermentation, Variété, pH, Défaut

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Équateur

Classification Agris : Q02 - Food processing and preservation

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Amores Fredy
  • Quiroz James G.
  • Jimenez J.
  • Decazy Bernard, CIRAD-CP-CACAO (ECU)
  • Guiltinan Mark J., Pennsylvania State University (USA)

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Source : Cirad - Agritrop (

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