Localization and identification of phenolic compounds in Theobroma cacao L. somatic embryogenesis

Alemanno Laurence, Ramos T., Gargadennec A., Andary C., Ferrière Nicole. 2003. Localization and identification of phenolic compounds in Theobroma cacao L. somatic embryogenesis. Annals of Botany, 92 (4) : pp. 613-623.

Journal article ; Article de revue à facteur d'impact
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Abstract : Cocoa breeders and growers continue to face the problem of high heterogeneity between individuals derived from one progeny. Vegetative propagation by somatic embryogenesis could be a way to increase genetic gains in the field. Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. This study was conducted to investigate the phenolic composition of cocoa flowers (the explants used to achieve somatic embryogenesis) and how it changes during the process, by means of histochemistry and conventional chemical techniques. In flowers, all parts contained polyphenolics but their locations were specific to the organ considered. After placing floral explants in vitro, the polyphenolic content was qualitatively modified and maintained in the calli throughout the culture process. Among the new polyphenolics, the three most abundant were isolated and characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR. They were hydroxycinnamic acid amides: N-trans-caffeoyl-L-DOPA or clovamide. N-trans-p-coumaroyl-L-tyrosine or deoxiclovamide, and N-trans-caffeoyl-L-tyrosine. The same compounds were found also in fresh, unfermented cocoa beans. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. Given the antioxidant nature of these compounds, they could reflect the stress status of the tissues. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Theobroma cacao, Embryogénèse somatique, Composé phénolique, Fleur, Cal, Gain génétique, Analyse histocytologique, Acide cinnamique, Anthocyane, Technique analytique

Classification Agris : F02 - Plant propagation
F62 - Plant physiology - Growth and development

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Alemanno Laurence, CIRAD-CP-CACAO (FRA)
  • Ramos T., UM1 (FRA)
  • Gargadennec A., UM1 (FRA)
  • Andary C., UM1 (FRA)
  • Ferrière Nicole

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