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Mejoramiento genetico del cafe en America Central : Seleccion de clones de hibridos F1 de coffea arabica. Junio 2001 - Junio 2005. Informe final

Charmetant Pierre. 2005. Mejoramiento genetico del cafe en America Central : Seleccion de clones de hibridos F1 de coffea arabica. Junio 2001 - Junio 2005. Informe final. Montpellier : CIRAD-CP, 88 p.

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Abstract : Since 1999, four countries in Central America have undertaken the establishment and follow up of comparative trials of Coffea arabica F1 hybrid clones, with the support of PROMECAFE-IICA and of CIRAD. These clones are the fruit of a long cooperation between CIRAD and IRD (France) with PROMECAFE and CATIE. More specifically, from a singletree selection made by Dr. B. Bertrand within hybrid progenies in Costa Rica. The purpose of his work had been to develop new varieties for Central America, more vigorous than the traditional varieties, by crossing the latter with wild or sub-spontaneous varieties from Ethiopia. For establishing the trials, CATIE and the countries involved multiplied the clones. They used the Somatic Embryogenesis technique defined by the CATIE - CIRAD cooperation. From 2001 onwards, the FONTAGRO project helped in establishing new trials, and in the follow up and scientific coordination. The results accumulated until 2005 allow the final selection of 3 clones, LI_L13A44, LI_L12A28 (both from the cross T05296 x Rume Sudan), and LI_L04A34 (Caturra x ET41). These clones can be distributed to the coffee growers. In four years of picking, these clones have shown a remarkable crop, surpassing the traditional varieties up to 150% in average. In terms of growth, these clones, though of the dwarf type, are more vigorous than the local varieties, thus greater, and with longer primary branches. Regarding physical properties of fruits and beans, the clones are different from the others, generally with a higher rate of peaberries and of floating fruits (partially empty). Their turnout ratio is thus slightly lower. Bean size is similar or even greater. The clones react normally with altitude regarding bean density. Finally, the most important is that organoleptic tests made over the four years, at local and regional levels, indicate that selected clones produce a coffee with the same global quality as the traditional varieties. Furthermore, from these tests, it appears that coffee quality in low elevation may be increased using these clones instead of traditional varieties. This has to be confirmed by the market. This project was developed with the help of FONTAGRO and PROMECAFE, but it counted with the active financial and logistical participation of the four countries that accepted to invest in this promising plant material, and of CIRAD for scientific coordination. The possible selection of more clones will take one year more. The real development of these clones in Central America will require a still higher investment. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Coffea arabica, Hybride, clone, Sélection, Propriété physicochimique, Propriété organoleptique, Qualité, Fruit, Fève de café, Variété indigène

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Amérique centrale

Classification Agris : F30 - Plant genetics and breeding
Q04 - Food composition

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Source : Cirad - Agritrop (https://agritrop.cirad.fr/531174/)

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