Results from collaborative and farmer participatory approaches to cocoa variety selection and breeding

Eskes Albertus, Adu-Ampomah Y., Aikpokpodion Peter O., Butler David R., Amores Fredy, Daymond Andrew J., Efombagn Mousseni Ives Bruno, Engels Johannes M.M., Gonzalez V.V., Iwaro D., Garcia L., Gilmour Martin, Maharaj P., Motamayor Juan Carlos, Marfu J., Monteiro Wilson Reis, N'Guessan K.F., Paulin Didier, Phillips M., Seguine E.S.. 2010. Results from collaborative and farmer participatory approaches to cocoa variety selection and breeding. In : 16th International Cocoa Research Conference. Proceedings : towards rational cocoa production and efficient use ofr a sustainable world cocoa economy = 16e Conférence internationale sur la recherche cacaoyère.Actes ; 16 Conferencia Internacional de Pesquisas em Cacau. Actas ; 16 Conferencia Internacional de investigacion en cacao. Actas : vers une économie cacaoyère durable : quelles stratégies d'approche ? ; para uma produção racional de cacau e o seu uso eficiente para uma economia mundial sustentada do cacau ; hacia una produccion racional y un uso eficiente del cacao para la sustentabilitd. Lagos : Cocoa Producers' Alliance, pp. 73-79. ISBN 978-065-959-5 Conférence Internationale sur la Recherche Cacaoyère. 16, Bali, Indonésie, 16 November 2009/21 November 2009.

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Titre français : Résultat d'approches collaboratives et participatives associant les agriculteurs à la sélection et à l'amélioration génétique des variétés de cacaoyers / Titre portugais : Resultados de abordagens colaborativas e participativas dos rendeiros sobre selecção e cultivo de variedades de cacau / Titre espagnol : Granjeros en la selección de variedades y el mejoramiento genético del cacao

Abstract : Cocoa variety selection and breeding are necessarily long-term activities. Collaboration between research centres is needed to find durable solutions to global production constraints, such as losses due to spreading diseases and pests, and to bridge the gaps between the main cocoa germplasm collection centres, which are in the Americas, and the main areas of cocoa production that are currently in Africa and Asia. Farmer participatory approaches to selection of new cocoa varieties allow integration of farmers' knowledge in breeding programmes and are expected to enhance the adoption rate of new cocoa varieties. These were the main rationale behind the activities carried out in two successive CFC/ICCO/Bioversity projects called "Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, a Global Approach (1998-2004)" and "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement, a Participatory Approach (2004-2010)". The projects were mainly funded by the CFC1, executed by Bioversity International, and implemented under the auspices of ICCO. They received substantial co-funding from BCCCA (now CRA), CIRAD, Guittard, Mars, USDA and WCF and significant counterpart contributions from all 14 collaborating institutions. An overview is presented of the activities carried out and results obtained. More than 120 ha of new cocoa variety trials were established on-station and 60 ha of on-farm observation plots. At all sites, numerous clone and hybrid varieties were selected and at some sites multiplication and/or distribution of these varieties to farmers has been initiated. Approximately 2000 promising farm selections are being compared with the best breeders' selections in on-station observation trials and in the on-farm variety trials. Genetic diversity of more than 2000 farm selections in Africa was analysed through co-financing arrangements and results published. Varieties with high levels of resistance to major diseases (Phytophthora pod rot or Ppr, witches' broom and moniliasis) were selected in the pre-breeding programmes carried out in the international cocoa germplasm collections held by CRU and CATIE as well as in cocoa producing countries. Transfer of selected germplasm to interested user countries, through intermediate quarantine at Reading University, is in an advanced stage. Rapid and/or early resistance screening methods have been validated and successfully adopted for Ppr, while screening for resistance to other diseases and pests continues to rely mainly on field evaluations. The International Clone Trial (ICT), planted at nine sites, is yielding important information on stability of all economically important traits. Preliminary results on flavour traits analysed for ten ICT clones show predominant country effects for basic flavour traits and significant interactions for fruity and floral flavour traits. The project has provided ample opportunities for training of young cocoa breeders and for exchange of information through regular regional and international workshops. The need is stressed for continuation of the collaborative efforts carried out with support from the 2 CFC/ICCO/Bioversity projects and for sustainable long-term funding of cocoa conservation, evaluation and breeding activities. (Résumé d'auteur)

Classification Agris : F30 - Plant genetics and breeding
U30 - Research methods
E50 - Rural sociology

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Eskes Albertus, CIRAD-BIOS-UPR Bioagresseurs de pérennes (FRA)
  • Adu-Ampomah Y., CRIG (GHA)
  • Aikpokpodion Peter O., CRIN (NGA)
  • Butler David R., UWI (TTO)
  • Amores Fredy, INIAP (ECU)
  • Daymond Andrew J., University of Reading (GBR)
  • Efombagn Mousseni Ives Bruno, IRAD (CMR)
  • Engels Johannes M.M., Biiodiversity International (ITA)
  • Gonzalez V.V., INIA (VEN)
  • Iwaro D., UWI (TTO)
  • Garcia L., Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Selva (PER)
  • Gilmour Martin, MARS Confectionery (GBR)
  • Maharaj P., MALMR (Trinité-et-Tobago) (TTO)
  • Motamayor Juan Carlos, USDA (USA)
  • Marfu J., CCI (PNG)
  • Monteiro Wilson Reis, CEPLAC (BRA)
  • N'Guessan K.F., CNRA (CIV)
  • Paulin Didier, CIRAD-BIOS-UPR Bioagresseurs de pérennes (FRA)
  • Phillips M., CATIE (CRI)
  • Seguine E.S., Guittard Chocolate (USA)

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