Estudio base de acercamiento e implementación de investigación participativa para la selección de clones superiores de cacao en tres areas productoras tradicionales del Ecuador

Agama Juan, Amores Fredy, Eskes Albertus, Vasco Alfonso, Zambrana J.A.. 2009. Estudio base de acercamiento e implementación de investigación participativa para la selección de clones superiores de cacao en tres areas productoras tradicionales del Ecuador. In : Proceedings of the international workshop on cocoa breeding for farmers' needs, 15th - 17th October 2006, San José, Costa Rica. Eskes Albertus (ed.), Efron Yoel (ed.), End M.J. (ed.), Bekele Frances L. (ed.). INGENIC, CATIE. Reading : INGENIC, pp. 31-40. ISBN 1-900527-04-9 International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding for Farmers¿ Needs. 5, San José, Costa Rica, 15 October 2006/17 October 2006.

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Titre anglais : Base study to implement a participative research approach to select superior cocoa clones in three traditional cocoa producing areas in Ecuador

Abstract : The introduction of participative research concepts are expected to increase the efficiency when selecting for superior cocoa clones. As part of the CFC/ICCO/Bioversity International project on "Cocoa Productivity and Quality Improvement: a Participatory Approach", a survey was conducted to characterize the socioeconomic environment and cocoa production systems in three traditional cocoa production areas. This information will be used as a valuable input in the process of participatory selection of new cocoa clones adapted to these areas. The study took place during 2005 in the Northern area (province of Esmeraldas), Piedemonte in the central part (province of Bolivar, next to the Andes range), and the Llanuras (provinces of Guayas and Los Ríos), which is a flat area further south of the same central part. Thirty small farms were selected in each area and a survey made up of 58 questions along six main groups of indicators was applied. The indicators grouped socioeconomic traits, characteristics of the cocoa fields, factors limiting productivity, intensity of the technology applied, current planting material and farmers' interest in new cocoa varieties. Regarding the socioeconomic dimension, results showed that in average cocoa farmers are older (87% > 55 years) in the Llanuras, younger (26% > 55 years) in the Northern area, while having an intermediate age (38% > 55 years) in Piedemonte. Farmers have the highest level of literacy (50% > 6 school years) in Piedemonte and the lowest level in the Llanuras (3% > 6 school years). Most of them own and exploit their farms in the Northern and Llanuras areas. Some 25% do not own but rent the cocoa fields in Piedemonte (true owners live in nearby urban areas). The largest cocoa fields are found in the Llanuras (12% > 10 hectares) followed by the Northern part (3% > 10 hectares). Some 25% of the cocoa is grown without shade in the Llanuras, 13% in Piedemonte and only 6% in the Northern area. The number of cocoa trees per unit area is the lowest (37% farms < 400 plants per hectare) in the Northern area and the highest in Piedemonte. The oldest cocoa fields (25% > 50 years old) are also found in the Northern area and the youngest in Piedemonte. More diversity (presence of other crops in the farm) is found in the Northern area. The presence of diseases was reported as the main factor limiting productivity; its impact is larger in the Northern area (more humid) and lower in the Llanuras (less humidity and shade). Water stress came out as one of the main factors limiting productivity in the Llanuras. Plant pruning (for maintenance and sanitation) is mostly absent in the Llanuras (no pruning in 50% of the farms) while this practice is common (no pruning in 12% of the farms) in Piedemonte. Fertilizer use is practically unknown in all areas, but the situation is more critical in the Northern part. Most of the plantations come from seed collected in the farmers' plantations (North), from commercial nurseries and INIAP (Llanuras and Piedemonte). In the Northern area, a large part of the traditional plantations show Criollo-like traits, whereas in the other two areas the Nacional and, to a lesser extend, Trinitario types predominate in the traditional plantations. Young plantations are still mainly planted with seedlings in the North, whereas clones have become increasingly more important in the other two areas. Farmers in the North and Piedemonte showed the highest interest in establishing new clonal cocoa plantations, while the least interest for this was detected in the Llanuras. In conclusion, farmers are older and more traditional in the "Llanuras". In the "Piedemonte" area, the farmers have the best level of education, own smaller holdings and appear to be more open to technological innovation. The main factors limiting productivity appear to be diseases, but very little is being done by farmers to improve the situation through pruning. A large proportion of the co

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Theobroma cacao, Participation, approches participatives

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Équateur

Mots-clés complémentaires : Recherche participative

Classification Agris : F30 - Plant genetics and breeding
U30 - Research methods
E50 - Rural sociology

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Agama Juan, INIAP (ECU)
  • Amores Fredy, INIAP (ECU)
  • Eskes Albertus, CIRAD-CP-UPR Bioagresseurs de pérennes (FRA)
  • Vasco Alfonso, INIAP (ECU)
  • Zambrana J.A., INIAP (ECU)

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