Parasite community ecology and epidemiological interactions at the wildlife/domestic/human interface : can we anticipate emerging infectious diseases in their hotspots?

Caron Alexandre, De Garine-Wichatitsky Michel, Morand Serge. 2011. Parasite community ecology and epidemiological interactions at the wildlife/domestic/human interface : can we anticipate emerging infectious diseases in their hotspots?. Ecohealth, 7, suppl., Résumé, S24 International One Health Congress. 1, Victoria, Australie, 14 February 2011/16 February 2011.

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Abstract : Identified hotspots of emerging infectious diseases are often characterised by an extensive wildlife/domestic/human interface in tropical ecosystems, thus creating complex multi-hosts and multi-pathogens systems. How can we anticipate emerging events in these hotspots? The parasite communities shared by wild and domestic populations at this interface reflect the historical of epidemiological interactions between them. A new pathogen entering this host system is most likely to use the transmission pathways already used by other pathogens. Using recent advances in community ecology and evolutionary molecular biology, we present a research framework to identify these transmission pathways. We applied this framework to 34 macroparasites and 7 microparasites shared by 14 rodents and the human species in a study site in Thailand. Based on a comparative study of component communities between host populations using the Jaccard index (presence/absence data), we build a network of interactions between the host populations. This network is characterised by the frequency, intensity and direction of interactions and can be explored using classical network analysis. We discuss the challenges and possibilities of this innovative approach. It provides a description of the transmission pathways between host species the most used by pathogens. This network can provide direct inputs for targeted disease surveillance at the wildlife/domestic/human interface to detect pathogen emergence when it occurs or host most likely to provide a source for future emergence. More generally, this approach could support the exploration of hypothesis about the general properties of transmission ecology at the wildlife/livestock/human interface. (Texte intégral)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Maladie infectieuse, Transmission des maladies, Surveillance épidémiologique, Animal domestique, Animal sauvage, Genre humain, Interactions biologiques, Maladie de l'homme, Maladie des animaux, Agent pathogène, zoonose, Flore microbienne, Parasite, Étude de cas, Biologie moléculaire, Écologie des populations, Écologie microbienne, Réseau, Hôte

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Thaïlande

Mots-clés complémentaires : Émergence

Classification Agris : L73 - Animal diseases
U30 - Research methods
000 - Autres thèmes

Champ stratégique Cirad : Axe 4 (2005-2013) - Santé animale et maladies émergentes

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