Whole-farm nitrogen cycling and intensification of crop-livestock systems in the highlands of Madagascar: An application of network analysis

Alvarez Stéphanie, Rufino Mariana Cristina, Vayssières Jonathan, Salgado Paulo, Tittonell Pablo, Tillard Emmanuel, Bocquier François. 2014. Whole-farm nitrogen cycling and intensification of crop-livestock systems in the highlands of Madagascar: An application of network analysis. Agricultural Systems, 126 : pp. 25-37.

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Abstract : Food insecurity, soil fertility depletion and strong competition for biomass are commonly observed in smallholder crop-livestock systems. The objective of this study was to explore options to improve farm-level nitrogen cycling, productivity and economic performance through the analysis of N flows within four contrasting crop-livestock farm systems of Madagascar highlands. Farms were conceptualized as networks where the compartments were the household and their farming activities, all connected by N flows. Indicators assessing network size and cycling, and the organization and diversity of the N flows, were compared with system productivity, food self-sufficiency, and gross margins for the current situation and under four scenarios of intensification (i) dairy production increased by increasing N inputs as supplementary feed; (ii) crop production increased by increasing N inputs as mineral fertilizer; (iii) manure management improved to increase N conservation during storage and application to soils; (iv) a combination of the two most economically attractive scenarios (i and iii). The four case study farms represent local diversity differing widely in terms of network size, with total annual system N throughput ranging from 113 to 1037 kg N per capita, and in terms of N cycling, from 3 to 41 kg N per capita per year. They differed less in terms of external dependence, from 0.26 to 0.41 kg N kg N_1. Improving N conservation through improved manure management (scenario iii) had a positive impact on gross margin, and this in combination with increased concentrate supply (scenario iv) led to increases in whole-farm N use efficiencies from 2% to 50%, in N cycling from 9% to 68% and in food self-sufficiency from 12% to 37% across farm types. Gross margin was the most sensitive indicator to changes in management. Intensification through scenario iv had the highest impact on farm productivity, gross margin, food self-sufficiency, and environment sustainability (N use efficiency, capacity of the soil to stock N). (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Cycle de l'azote, Azote, Petite exploitation agricole, Intensification, Polyculture élevage, Production laitière, Complément alimentaire, Fertilisation, Sol, Teneur en azote, Marge brute, Gestion des déchets

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Madagascar

Classification Agris : L01 - Animal husbandry
F01 - Crops
P33 - Soil chemistry and physics
F04 - Fertilizing
L02 - Animal feeding

Champ stratégique Cirad : Axe 1 (2014-2018) - Agriculture écologiquement intensive

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Alvarez Stéphanie
  • Rufino Mariana Cristina, ILRI (KEN)
  • Vayssières Jonathan, CIRAD-ES-UMR SELMET (SEN) ORCID: 0000-0003-3127-7208
  • Salgado Paulo, CIRAD-ES-UMR SELMET (REU)
  • Tittonell Pablo, CIRAD-PERSYST-UPR SCA (NLD)
  • Tillard Emmanuel, CIRAD-ES-UMR SELMET (REU)
  • Bocquier François, INRA (FRA)

Source : Cirad - Agritrop (

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