Unsustainable landscapes of deforested Amazonia: an analysis of the relationships among landscapes and the social, economic and environmental profiles of farms at different ages following deforestation

Lavelle Patrick, Dolédec Sylvain, Arnauld de Sartre Xavier, Decaëns Thibaud, Gond Valéry, Grimaldi Michel, Oszwald Johan, Hubert Bernard, Ramirez Bertha, Veiga Iran, De Souza Simao, Santos de Assis William, Michelotti Fernando, Martins Marlucia Bonifacio, Feijoo Alexander, Bommel Pierre, Castañeda Edna, Chacon Patricia, Desjardins Thierry, Dubs Florence, Gordillo Erika, Guevara Edward, Fonte Steven J., Del Pilar Hurtado Maria, Léna Philippe, Lima Tâmara Thaiz Santana, Marichal Raphaël, Mitja Danielle, Miranda Izildinha de Souza, Otero Joel Tupac, Praxedes Catarina, Poccard-Chapuis René, de Robert Pascale, Rodriguez Gamadiel, Sanabria Catalina, Tsélouiko Stéphanie, Velasquez Alexander, Velasquez Elena, Velasquez Jaime. 2016. Unsustainable landscapes of deforested Amazonia: an analysis of the relationships among landscapes and the social, economic and environmental profiles of farms at different ages following deforestation. Global Environmental Change, 40 : pp. 137-155.

Journal article ; Article de recherche ; Article de revue à facteur d'impact
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Quartile : Outlier, Sujet : GEOGRAPHY / Quartile : Outlier, Sujet : ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES / Quartile : Q1, Sujet : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Liste HCERES des revues (en SHS) : oui

Thème(s) HCERES des revues (en SHS) : Economie-gestion

Abstract : In Amazonia, our knowledge of the trade-offs and possible thresholds in the relationships among social, economic and environmental parameters remains quite limited and hinders the design of sustainable socio-environmental systems. To fill this gap, we analyzed relationships among landscape metrics, socio-economic patterns, biodiversity and soil-based ecosystem services within a total of 51 farms located at 6 sites of the Colombian and Brazilian Amazon. Farms were representative of an initial set of 274 and they represented colonization ages from 10 to 80 years and a range of public policies found in the region. Cluster analysis separated farms in 7 types of production systems according to 5 main criteria (size of the farm, human capital, incomes, farm products and production intensity) selected from an initial set of 18 criteria. Biodiversity was summarized into a composite index Bd built with data from 8 different groups: trees, shrubs, grasses and forbs, birds, Saturnidae and Sphingidae moths, Drosophilidae, earthworms and ants. Provision of ecosystem services was quantified by a composite indicator of 6 sub-indicators of soil hydrological functions, C storage and chemical fertility. Increasing intensity of production systems was linked to a significant decrease of indicators of natural capital biodiversity (Bd) and soil based ecosystem services (Es) with 20% and 37.3% variance explained, respectively. No relationship was observed between production systems and an indicator of human wellbeing (Sb) based on a set of 5 criteria identified with the farmers. Findings indicate that early colonizers migrate when a certain level of development has been achieved (as a result of their activities) and are replaced by wealthier populations. An overall indicator of sustainability (Su) – that combines production efficiency (Ep), Sb, Bd and Es indices (ranging from 0.1–1.0) – decreases significantly with the landscape intensification (Li) with 18.7% variance directly explained by this relationship. Su was also significantly related to production systems (36.4% variance explained): while this indicator remained relatively stable with a value of 0.5 across the early and intermediate phases following deforestation, it dropped down considerably (0.2) for production systems based on cattle ranching on highly degraded pastures with less than 2% forest cover remaining. Restoration with sylvopastoral systems allowed some farms of this former group to increase sustainability to a value of 0.35 after less than 5 years. Agroforestry systems on sites deforested at the same time maintained values around 0.5, as they allowed the maximum production efficiencies and maintained relatively high values of the Biodiversity (Bd) and Ecosystem services (Es) indexes. This is evidence that beyond the general negative trade-off between human development and natural capital observed in Amazonia, agro ecological options to revert the trend are quite promising. A general methodological approach for the reconstruction of sustainable landscapes in farms of the deforested Amazonian region is proposed as a conclusion. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Déboisement, Agroforesterie, Développement rural intégré, agroécologie, Paysage, Durabilité, Utilisation des terres, Biodiversité, services écosystémiques, Développement agricole, protection de la forêt

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Amazonie, Brésil

Mots-clés libres : Socio-ecological systems, Amazonia, Landscapes

Classification Agris : F08 - Cropping patterns and systems
K01 - Forestry - General aspects
P01 - Nature conservation and land resources

Champ stratégique Cirad : Axe 1 (2014-2018) - Agriculture écologiquement intensive

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Lavelle Patrick, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (FRA)
  • Dolédec Sylvain, UCLB (FRA)
  • Arnauld de Sartre Xavier, UPPA (FRA)
  • Decaëns Thibaud, Université de Rouen (FRA)
  • Gond Valéry, CIRAD-ES-UPR BSef (FRA) ORCID: 0000-0002-0080-3140
  • Grimaldi Michel, IRD (FRA)
  • Oszwald Johan, Université de Haute-Bretagne (FRA)
  • Hubert Bernard, INRA (FRA)
  • Ramirez Bertha, University of Amazonia (COL)
  • Veiga Iran, UFPA (BRA)
  • De Souza Simao, UFPA (BRA)
  • Santos de Assis William, UFPA (BRA)
  • Michelotti Fernando, UFPA (BRA)
  • Martins Marlucia Bonifacio, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (BRA)
  • Feijoo Alexander, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira (COL)
  • Bommel Pierre, CIRAD-ES-UPR GREEN (CRI) ORCID: 0000-0002-7776-9075
  • Castañeda Edna, University of Amazonia (COL)
  • Chacon Patricia, Universidad del Valle (COL)
  • Desjardins Thierry, IRD (FRA)
  • Dubs Florence, IRD (FRA)
  • Gordillo Erika, University of Amazonia (COL)
  • Guevara Edward, CIAT (COL)
  • Fonte Steven J., CIAT (COL)
  • Del Pilar Hurtado Maria, CIAT (COL)
  • Léna Philippe, IRD (FRA)
  • Lima Tâmara Thaiz Santana, UFRA (BRA)
  • Marichal Raphaël, CIRAD-PERSYST-UPR Systèmes de pérennes (IDN)
  • Mitja Danielle, IRD (FRA)
  • Miranda Izildinha de Souza, UFRA (BRA)
  • Otero Joel Tupac, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (COL)
  • Praxedes Catarina, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (BRA)
  • Poccard-Chapuis René, CIRAD-ES-UMR SELMET (BRA) ORCID: 0000-0003-2200-0637
  • de Robert Pascale, IRD (FRA)
  • Rodriguez Gamadiel, University of Amazonia (COL)
  • Sanabria Catalina, Universidad del Valle (COL)
  • Tsélouiko Stéphanie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (FRA)
  • Velasquez Alexander, University of Amazonia (COL)
  • Velasquez Elena, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (COL)
  • Velasquez Jaime, University of Amazonia (COL)

Source : Cirad-Agritrop (

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