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Weed control by two cover crops Neonotonia wightii and Centrosema pascuorum in banana plantations-impact on nitrogen competition and banana productivity

Achard Raphaël, Fevrier Amélie, Estrade J.R.. 2018. Weed control by two cover crops Neonotonia wightii and Centrosema pascuorum in banana plantations-impact on nitrogen competition and banana productivity. In : Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Banana: ISHS-ProMusa Symposium on Agroecological Approaches to Promote Innovative Banana Production Systems. Van den Bergh Inge (ed.), Risède Jean-Michel (ed.), Johnson Vincent (ed.). ISHS. Louvain : ISHS, pp. 87-94. (Acta Horticulturae, 1196) ISBN 978-94-6261-192-4 International Symposium on Banana: ISHS-ProMusa Symposium on Agroecological Approaches to Promote Innovative Banana Production Systems. 10, Montpellier, France, 10 October 2016/14 October 2016.

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Abstract : Intercropping bananas with cover crops is a promising alternative to chemical weed control. In this study, we evaluated two legume species Neonotonia wightii (NW) and Centrosema pascuorum (CP) for their weed control ability in a banana plantation. The impact of these living covers on soil nitrogen content and on banana productivity was also evaluated in comparison to a spontaneous weed cover (SP) and to a chemical weed control (CWC). For the three treatments with a living cover, a grass-specific herbicide was applied at 60 days after planting, and mowing was performed at 120 days after planting. At crop emergence, NW and CP showed similar above-ground biomass per plant; thereafter the higher biomass growth rate of CP resulted in a higher covering ability. At 90 days after planting, CP had a biomass of 6 t ha-1 dry matter (DM), and resulted in a 55% weed biomass reduction in comparison to SP. CP growth declined after this stage, and there was no regrowth after mowing. NW produced only 1 t ha-1 DM at 90 days after planting and provided no weed control at this stage. NW showed a good regrowth 240 days after planting, after the mowing provided a 60% reduction of weed biomass in comparison to SP. Nevertheless, NW and CP did not reduce the global nitrogen uptake of the cover in comparison to SP, and demonstrated a negative effect similar to that of SP on soil mineral nitrogen content compared to ewe. Both cover crops reduced the banana leaf emission rate and pseudostem girth by 24% in comparison to CWC at 131 days after planting. NW and CP did not impact the bunch weight but delayed the flowering date by 5 weeks, in comparison to CWC, which corresponded to 10% of loss in the crop productivity per year.

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Musa, Mauvaise herbe, Lutte biologique, Compétition végétale, Plante d'ombrage, Biomasse, Agroécosystème

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Antilles françaises

Classification Agris : H60 - Weeds and weed control
F08 - Cropping patterns and systems
F40 - Plant ecology

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Achard Raphaël, CIRAD-PERSYST-UPR Systèmes bananes et ananas (MTQ)
  • Fevrier Amélie
  • Estrade J.R., AgroParisTech (FRA)

Autres liens de la publication

Source : Cirad-Agritrop (https://agritrop.cirad.fr/588381/)

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