Toxicity of natural deep eutectic solvent betaine: Glycerol in rats

Benlebna Melha, Ruesgas-Ramón Mariana, Bonafos Béatrice, Fouret Gilles, Casas François, Coudray Charles, Durand Erwann, Figueroa-Espinoza Maria-Cruz, Feillet-Coudray Christine. 2018. Toxicity of natural deep eutectic solvent betaine: Glycerol in rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 66 (24) : pp. 6205-6212.

Journal article ; Article de recherche ; Article de revue à facteur d'impact
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Quartile : Outlier, Sujet : AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY / Quartile : Q1, Sujet : CHEMISTRY, APPLIED / Quartile : Q1, Sujet : FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Abstract : Natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDES) are new natural solvents in green chemistry that in some cases have been shown to allow better extraction of plant bioactive molecules compared to conventional solvents and higher phenolic compound absorption in rodents. However, there is a serious lack of information regarding their in vivo safety. The purpose of this study was to verify the safety of a NaDES (betaine:glycerol (1:2 mole ratio) of water) extract from green coffee beans, rich in polyphenols. Twelve 6-week-old male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups of 6 animals each and twice daily gavaged for 14 days either with 3 mL of water or 3 mL of phenolic NaDES extract. Oral administration of phenolic NaDES extract induced mortality in two rats. In addition, it induced excessive water consumption, reduced dietary intake and weight loss, hepatomegaly, and plasma oxidative stress associated with high blood lipid levels. In conclusion, this work demonstrated the toxicity of oral administration of the selected NaDES under a short-term condition. This occurs despite the fact that this NaDES extract contains polyphenols, whose beneficial effects have been shown. Therefore, complementary work is needed to find the best dose and formulation of NaDES that are safe for the environment and animals and ultimately for humans.

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Polyphénol, Solvant, Coffea, Agriculture biologique

Mots-clés libres : NaDES, Toxicity, Chlorogenic acids, Phenolic compounds

Classification Agris : F60 - Plant physiology and biochemistry
L73 - Animal diseases

Champ stratégique Cirad : Axe 3 (2014-2018) - Alimentation durable

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Benlebna Melha, INRA (FRA)
  • Ruesgas-Ramón Mariana, Montpellier SupAgro (FRA)
  • Bonafos Béatrice, INRA (FRA)
  • Fouret Gilles, INRA (FRA)
  • Casas François, INRA (FRA)
  • Coudray Charles, INRA (FRA)
  • Durand Erwann, CIRAD-PERSYST-UMR IATE (FRA) ORCID: 0000-0002-0306-8081
  • Figueroa-Espinoza Maria-Cruz, Montpellier SupAgro (FRA) - auteur correspondant
  • Feillet-Coudray Christine, INRA (FRA) - auteur correspondant

Source : Cirad-Agritrop (

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