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A strong east–west Mediterranean divergence supports a new phylogeographic history of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua, Leguminosae) and multiple domestications from native populations

Viruel Juan, Le Galliot Nicolas, Pironon Samuel, Nieto-Feliner Gonzalo, Suc Jean‐Pierre, Lakhal‐Mirleau Fatima, Juin Marianick, Selva Marjorie, Bou Dagher Kharrat Magda, Ouahmane Lahcen, La Malfa Stefano, Diadema Katia, Sanguin Hervé, Médail Frédéric, Baumel Alex. 2020. A strong east–west Mediterranean divergence supports a new phylogeographic history of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua, Leguminosae) and multiple domestications from native populations. Journal of Biogeography, 47 (2) : pp. 460-471.

Journal article ; Article de recherche ; Article de revue à facteur d'impact
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Liste HCERES des revues (en SHS) : oui

Thème(s) HCERES des revues (en SHS) : Géographie-Aménagement-Urbanisme-Architecture

Abstract : Aim: Phylogeography of fruit trees is challenging due to recurrent exchanges between domesticated and wild populations. Here we tested the eastern refugium hypothesis (ERH) for the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua, which supports its natural and domestication origins in the eastern Mediterranean and a feral origin in the west. Location: Mediterranean basin. Taxon: Ceratonia siliqua L., Leguminosae. Methods: A phylogenetic reconstruction based on two nuclear and one plastid sequences was performed to estimate the divergence time between the carob tree and its sister species, Ceratonia oreothauma. Variation from four plastid regions and 17 nuclear microsatellite loci were used to decipher genetic structure in the carob tree and to test coalescent‐based models by an Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach. We assessed our hypotheses by examining palaeobotanical records and hindcasting the past distribution of the carob tree at Mid‐Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Last Interglacial (LIG) using species distribution modelling. Results: The split between C. oreothauma and C. siliqua was estimated at 6.4 Ma, and a first divergence within C. siliqua at 1.3 Ma. After a continuous presence since the Oligocene, Ceratonia was rarely found in the fossil record during the Pleistocene but present in the western and the eastern Mediterranean. Plastid and nuclear markers, characterized by low allelic richness, revealed a strong west‐east genetic structuring. ABC analyses rejected the ERH. Main conclusions: Our study supports a severe population decline during LIG. The strong west–east divergence and the occurrence of four lineages within C. siliqua provided support for a new hypothesis of multiple domestications of the carob tree from native populations throughout the Mediterranean basin.

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Ceratonia siliqua, Biogéographie, Taxonomie, Domestication des plantes, Distribution géographique, Organisme indigène

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Région méditerranéenne, Espagne, Maroc

Mots-clés libres : Phylogeography, Carob tree, Domestication, Mediterranean

Classification Agris : F70 - Plant taxonomy and geography
F01 - Crops

Champ stratégique Cirad : CTS 1 (2019-) - Biodiversité

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Viruel Juan, Royal Botanic Garden (GBR)
  • Le Galliot Nicolas, Université Aix-Marseille (FRA)
  • Pironon Samuel, Royal Botanic Gardens (GBR)
  • Nieto-Feliner Gonzalo, CSIC (ESP)
  • Suc Jean‐Pierre, ISTEP (FRA)
  • Lakhal‐Mirleau Fatima, Université Aix-Marseille (FRA)
  • Juin Marianick, Université Aix-Marseille (FRA)
  • Selva Marjorie, Université Aix-Marseille (FRA)
  • Bou Dagher Kharrat Magda, Université Saint-Joseph (LBN)
  • Ouahmane Lahcen, Université Aix-Marseille (FRA)
  • La Malfa Stefano, University of Catania (ITA)
  • Diadema Katia, Conservatoire Botanique National Méditerranéen de Porquerolles (FRA)
  • Sanguin Hervé, CIRAD-BIOS-UMR BGPI (FRA)
  • Médail Frédéric, IMBE (FRA)
  • Baumel Alex, IMBE (FRA) - auteur correspondant

Source : Cirad-Agritrop (https://agritrop.cirad.fr/594278/)

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