Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India

Bal Pierre, Nath Cheryl D., Nanaya Konerira M., Kushalappa Cheppudira G., Garcia Claude A.. 2011. Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India. Environmental Management, 47 (5) : pp. 789-801.

Journal article ; Article de revue à facteur d'impact
[img] Published version - Anglais
Access restricted to CIRAD agents
Use under authorization by the author or CIRAD.

Télécharger (960kB)


Liste HCERES des revues (en SHS) : oui

Thème(s) HCERES des revues (en SHS) : Géographie-Aménagement-Urbanisme-Architecture

Abstract : Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a ''wicked'' problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Éléphant d'Asie, Coffea, Fruit, Fèces, Ravageur des plantes, Comportement alimentaire, Consommation alimentaire (animaux), Protection des plantes, Agroforesterie

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Karnataka

Mots-clés complémentaires : Baie

Classification Agris : H10 - Pests of plants
F08 - Cropping patterns and systems
P01 - Nature conservation and land resources

Champ stratégique Cirad : Axe 1 (2005-2013) - Intensification écologique

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Bal Pierre, French Institute of Pondicherry (IND)
  • Nath Cheryl D., French Institute of Pondicherry (IND)
  • Nanaya Konerira M., French Institute of Pondicherry (IND)
  • Kushalappa Cheppudira G., UAS (IND)
  • Garcia Claude A., CIRAD-ES-UPR BSef (IND) ORCID: 0000-0002-7351-0226

Autres liens de la publication

Source : Cirad - Agritrop (

View Item (staff only) View Item (staff only)

[ Page générée et mise en cache le 2021-05-29 ]