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PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

Ali Shahin, Amoako-Attah Ishmael, Bailey Rebecca, Strem Mary, Schmidt Martha, Yaw Akrofi Andrew, Surujdeo-Maharaj Surendra, Kolawole Oluwaseun O., Begoude Dider, Ten Hoopen Gerben Martijn, Goss Erica, Phillips-Mora Wilbert, Meinhardt Lyndel W., Bailey Bryan. 2016. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa. Plant Pathology, 65 (7) : pp. 1095-1108.

Journal article ; Article de recherche ; Article de revue à facteur d'impact
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Quartile : Q1, Sujet : AGRONOMY / Quartile : Q2, Sujet : PLANT SCIENCES

Abstract : Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainable disease management strategies. A simple PCR-based species identification method was developed based on the species-specific sequences in the ITS regions of the rRNA gene. A phylogenetic tree generated for 119 Phytophthora isolates based on the 60S ribosomal protein L10 gene and rDNA sequence verified the PCR-based identification assay and showed high interspecific variation among the species causing black pod. P. megakarya isolates were uniformly virulent in a zoospore inoculated pod husk assay using susceptible cacao pods, while the P. palmivora isolates showed greater divergence in virulence. The virulence of P. megakarya was associated with earlier sporangia production along with an accelerated induction of necrosis. While zoospore germ-tubes of both species penetrated pods through stomata, only P. megakarya produced significant numbers of appressorium. A hypersensitive-like response was observed when attached SCA-6 pods were inoculated with P. palmivora. SCA-6 pods became vulnerable to P. palmivora when wounded prior to zoospore inoculation. P. megakarya was more aggressive on attached SCA-6 pods causing expanding necrotic lesions with or without wounding. P. megakarya is predominant in the Volta region of Ghana and it remains to be seen if it can displace P. palmivora from cacao plantations of Ghana as it has done in Nigeria and Cameroon. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Phytophthora, Phytophthora palmivora, Theobroma cacao, PCR, Phylogénie, Virulence, Identification, Séquence d'ADN, Gène dominant

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Ghana, Afrique occidentale, Nigéria, Brésil, Costa Rica, Trinité-et-Tobago

Mots-clés complémentaires : Phytophthora megakarya, Séquencage

Mots-clés libres : Cocoa, Phylogeny, PCR, Virulence, Ghana, Appressoria, Phytophthora megakarya, Phytophthora palmivora, Theobroma cacao

Classification Agris : H20 - Plant diseases
U30 - Research methods

Champ stratégique Cirad : Axe 4 (2014-2018) - Santé des animaux et des plantes

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Ali Shahin, USDA (USA)
  • Amoako-Attah Ishmael, CRIG (GHA)
  • Bailey Rebecca, USDA (USA)
  • Strem Mary, USDA (USA)
  • Schmidt Martha, USDA (USA)
  • Yaw Akrofi Andrew, CRIG (GHA)
  • Surujdeo-Maharaj Surendra, UWI (TTO)
  • Kolawole Oluwaseun O., CRIN (NGA)
  • Begoude Dider, IRAD (CMR)
  • Ten Hoopen Gerben Martijn, CIRAD-BIOS-UPR Bioagresseurs (CMR) ORCID: 0000-0003-2133-3130
  • Goss Erica, University of Florida (USA)
  • Phillips-Mora Wilbert, CATIE (CRI)
  • Meinhardt Lyndel W., USDA (USA)
  • Bailey Bryan, USDA (USA)

Source : Cirad-Agritrop (https://agritrop.cirad.fr/579153/)

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