SC-CO2 Extraction of guayule biomass (Parthenium argentatum) – yield and selectivity towards valuable co-products, lipids and terpenics

Punvichai Teerasak, Amor Ali, Tardan Eric, Palu Serge, Pioch Daniel. 2016. SC-CO2 Extraction of guayule biomass (Parthenium argentatum) – yield and selectivity towards valuable co-products, lipids and terpenics. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 6 (6) : pp. 1777-1787.

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Abstract : Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) a shrub native to Mexico, is now being acclimated in Europe as a potential crop. The main extractible fractions are polyisoprene (similar to Hevea rubber) for producing tires and allergy-free gloves and resin (GRe). This work deals with valorising this last fraction, after water-based extraction of the latex. To date GRe has not been extensively investigated, in spite of containing useful compounds, and there is a need for a green and selective extraction process, which is the aim of present work. First, resin -a mixture of lipids and terpenics- was analysed with focus on fatty acids and other carboxylic acid containing classes. Then the influence of extraction conditions was investigated, under "soft" conditions with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO<sub>2</sub>). Investigated parameters act on extraction efficiency (yield, selectivity) towards valuable fractions. Our results do show that SC-CO<sub>2</sub> alone cannot extract substantial amounts of resin. As co-solvent, ethanol -a benign one- and acetone, this last being the most common solvent for that purpose, here also used alone as reference, under pressurized extractions conditions (ASE). Under SC-CO<sub>2</sub>, ethanol allows the highest resin yield (12.1%-dw biomass dry weight) compared to acetone (7.0%-dw) and to the reference ASE-acetone method (5.2%-dw). Found suitable conditions with SC-CO<sub>2</sub>-ethanol are affordable: flow rate 34 gCO<sub>2</sub>/min and 3.0mL/min of co-solvent, temperature 45°C, pressure 300 bar. Saponification was used for separating resins components before analysis. Aromatic carboxylic acids (cinnamic, panisic) initially linked to a sesquiterpene, are the major components found in G-Re from the biomass (branches) using the reference ASE method. But these are even more prominent in SC-CO<sub>2</sub>-ethanol extracts from bagasse (68.7%), compared to SC-CO<sub>2</sub>-acetone (51.1%) which allows a lower selectivity. The unsaponifiable fraction shows a low dependency on extraction temperature with SC-CO<sub>2</sub>-ethanol, playing in favor of preserving extract value, guayulins (sesquiterpenes) and argentatins (triperpenes) being known anti-insect and fungistatic agents for wood preservation. Minor resin components are fatty acids containing lipids C18:2, C18:3, C16:0. SC-CO<sub>2</sub> and ethanol, which can be easily recycled, are highly suitable for extracting high-value natural compounds, given their low environmental impact. This work provides the first detailed insight for selecting appropriate parameters and their variation range, in view of further optimizing a "green" process for extracting above compounds. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Parthenium argentatum, Composition chimique, Extraction, Sesquiterpénoïde, Triterpénoïde, Préservation du bois, Résine, Utilisation, Biomasse, Éthanol, Extrait d'origine végétale, Sous-produit, Saponification, Extraction au fluide supercritique

Mots-clés libres : Guayule, Sc-co2, Supercritical carbon dioxide

Classification Agris : K50 - Processing of forest products
F60 - Plant physiology and biochemistry
000 - Other themes
U30 - Research methods

Champ stratégique Cirad : Axe 2 (2014-2018) - Valorisation de la biomasse

Agence(s) de financement européenne(s) : European Commission

Programme de financement européen : FP7

Projet(s) de financement européen(s) : EU-based Production and Exploitation of Alternative Rubber and Latex Sources

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Punvichai Teerasak, CIRAD-PERSYST-UPR BioWooEB (FRA)
  • Amor Ali
  • Tardan Eric, CIRAD-PERSYST-UPR BioWooEB (FRA)
  • Palu Serge, CIRAD-PERSYST-UPR BioWooEB (FRA)
  • Pioch Daniel, CIRAD-PERSYST-UPR BioWooEB (FRA)

Source : Cirad-Agritrop (

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