Cosmopolitan and neglected, stomoxys flies are important vectors of pathogens

Duvallet Gérard, Baldacchino Frédéric, Dsouli-Aymes Najla, Desquesnes Marc. 2014. Cosmopolitan and neglected, stomoxys flies are important vectors of pathogens. In : 8th International Congress of Dipterology, Potsdam 2014: Abstract volume. Dorchin N. (ed.), Kotrba M. (ed.), Mengual X. (ed.), Menzel, F. (ed). Krumbach : s.n., Résumé, p. 89. ISBN 978-3-932795-36-7 International Congress of Dipterology. 8, Potsdam, Allemagne, 10 August 2014/15 August 2014.

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Abstract : The genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 includes 18 known species (Zumpt, 1973), 17 of which with a tropical distribution and one (S. calcitrans (L. 1758)) cosmopolitan. Stomoxys flies are haematophagous and are a nuisance because of their painful bites and blood predation, and they are also mechanical vectors of pathogens present in the blood and skin of their animal hosts, especially livestock and dogs but occasionally also humans. A phylogenetic analysis suggests the paraphyly of the genus Stomoxys, due to the inclusion of Prostomoxys saegerae in the group. The basal branching of S. indicus suggests an Oriental origin of the genus, around the end of the Oligocene. A phylogeographic study of S. calcitrans shows the presence of an Oriental lineage differentiated from the remainder. Stomoxys are not only immediate transmitters of pathogens, they are also suspected of delayed transmission by regurgitation of blood from crop or gut, which may considerably impact their role in the epidemiology of the transmitted diseases. Such a mechanism allows inter-herd transmission of pathogens. Equine infectious anemia, African swine fever, West Nile and Rift Valley viruses are known to be transmitted by Stomoxys, while others are suspected to be. Rickettsia (Anaplasma, Coxiella), as well as other bacteria and parasites (Trypanosoma spp., Besnoitia spp.), are also transmitted by Stomoxys. Finally, Stomoxys was also found to act as an intermediate host of the helminth Habronema microstoma and may be involved in the transmission of some Onchocerca and Dirofilaria species. Being cosmopolitan, S. calcitrans might have a worldwide and greater impact than previously thought on animal and human pathogen transmission. Based on a better knowledge of their role as nuisance species and their biology, new means of control of Stomoxys flies are currently under study to specifically attract these insects to traps or toxic targets.

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Duvallet Gérard, Université Paul Valéry (FRA)
  • Baldacchino Frédéric, Université Paul Valéry (FRA)
  • Dsouli-Aymes Najla, Université Paul Valéry (FRA)
  • Desquesnes Marc, CIRAD-BIOS-UMR INTERTRYP (THA) ORCID: 0000-0002-7665-2422

Source : Cirad-Agritrop (

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