Genetic homogeneity of Anopheles maculatus in Indonesia and origin of a novel species present in Central Java

Ambar Garjito Triwibowo, Widiastuti Umi, Mujiyono Mujiyono, Prihatin Mega Tyas, Widiarti Widiarti, Setyaningsih Riyani, Alfiah Sitti, Widartono Barandi Sapta, Syafruddin Din, Tunggul Satoto Tri Baskoro, Gavotte Laurent, Bangs Michael J., Manguin Sylvie, Frutos Roger. 2019. Genetic homogeneity of Anopheles maculatus in Indonesia and origin of a novel species present in Central Java. Parasites and Vectors, 12:351, 11 p.

Journal article ; Article de revue à facteur d'impact Revue en libre accès total
Published version - Anglais
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Quartile : Q1, Sujet : TROPICAL MEDICINE / Quartile : Q1, Sujet : PARASITOLOGY

Abstract : Background: Anopheles maculatus (s.s.) is an important vector of malaria in Indonesia. Previously it was considered the only member of the Maculatus Group present in Indonesia. A novel species was recently identified in the Kulon Progo District in Central Java. Until recently, few investigations have been conducted looking at An. maculatus genetic diversity in Indonesia, including allopatric island populations. Methods: Indonesian An. maculatus (s.l.) samples were collected in several locations in Java, Lesser Sunda Island group, Sumatra and in Kulon Progo (Yogyakarta, central Java) where a novel species has been identified. Samples from a 30-year-old colony of the Kulon Progo population were also included in the analysis. Maximum-likelihood analysis established the phylogenies of the ITS2 (nuclear) and cox1 (mitochondrial) markers. Putative times of separation were based on cox1 genetic distances. Results: Two species of the Maculatus Group are present in Indonesia. The novel sibling species is more closely related to Anopheles dispar than to An. maculatus (s.s.). Anopheles maculatus (s.s.) samples are homogeneous based on the ITS2 sequences. Indonesian samples and An. dispar belong to the same cox1 maternal lineage and differ from all other known members of the Maculatus Group. Divergence time between the different populations found in Java was estimated using an established cox1 mutation rate. Conclusions: A novel species within the Maculatus Group, most closely related to An. dispar, is confirmed present in the Kulon Progo area of Central Java. The divergence of this species from An. maculatus (s.s.) is explained by the stable refugia in the Kulon Progo area during the quaternary period of intense volcanic activity throughout most of Java. This novel species awaits detailed morphological description before applying a formal species name. For the interim, it is proposed that the Kulon Progo population be designated An. maculatus var. menoreh to distinguish it from An. maculatus (s.s.)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Anopheles, Vecteur de maladie, Taxonomie, Variation génétique

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Indonésie, Java

Mots-clés complémentaires : Anopheles maculatus

Mots-clés libres : Anopheles maculatus, Maculatus Group, Indonesia, Malaria

Classification Agris : L73 - Animal diseases
000 - Other themes
L10 - Animal genetics and breeding

Champ stratégique Cirad : CTS 4 (2019-) - Santé des plantes, des animaux et des écosystèmes

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Ambar Garjito Triwibowo, IVRCRD (IDN) - auteur correspondant
  • Widiastuti Umi, IVRCRD (IDN)
  • Mujiyono Mujiyono, IVRCRD (IDN)
  • Prihatin Mega Tyas, IVRCRD (IDN)
  • Widiarti Widiarti, IVRCRD (IDN)
  • Setyaningsih Riyani, IVRCRD (IDN)
  • Alfiah Sitti, IVRCRD (IDN)
  • Widartono Barandi Sapta, Gadjah Mada University (IDN)
  • Syafruddin Din, Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology (IDN)
  • Tunggul Satoto Tri Baskoro, Gadjah Mada University (IDN)
  • Gavotte Laurent, UM2 (FRA)
  • Bangs Michael J., Kasetsart University (THA)
  • Manguin Sylvie, IRD (FRA)

Source : Cirad-Agritrop (

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