Molle François, Tanouti Oumaima, Faysse Nicolas. 2019. Morocco. In : Irrigation in the Mediterranean: Technologies, institutions and policies. Molle François (ed.), Sanchis-Ibor Carles (ed.), Avella Reus Llorenç (ed.). Cham : Springer, pp. 51-88. (Global Issues in Water Policy, 22) ISBN 978-3-030-03696-6

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Abstract : Morocco has well developed irrigation facilities that range from small scale communal systems based on springs, qanats or river diversions to groundwater-based individual initiatives and large scale public schemes. Water demand policies – e.g. water pricing, shift to drip irrigation, 'aquifer contracts' and other forms of participatory management – have shown little potential in curbing overexploitation of resources in many basins. Expansion of irrigated areas and the priority given to productivity have taken their toll on the environment, favored commercial agriculture, and contributed to a net depletion of groundwater estimated at 1 billion m3/year. There is a need to better align agricultural development, water conservation, and environmental objectives. After a short historical perspective, this chapter first reviews a number of trends in the irrigation sector (modernization, development of groundwater resources, wastewater reuse and desalination), before turning to regulatory and institutional issues, including participatory management, economic tools, privatization and an examination of the Plan Maroc Vert. The threats posed by climate change, water scarcity, and environmental degradation are then discussed.

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Gestion des eaux, politique de l'eau, Communauté rurale, Irrigation

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Maroc

Classification Agris : P10 - Water resources and management
F06 - Irrigation

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Molle François, IRD (FRA)
  • Tanouti Oumaima, Université de Paris-Nanterre (FRA)
  • Faysse Nicolas, CIRAD-ES-UMR G-EAU (THA)

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