Assessment and adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) to the agroclimatic conditions in Mali, West Africa: An example of South-North-South cooperation

Coulibaly A., Sangaré A., Konate M., Traoré S., Ruiz Karina. B, Martinez Enrique A., Zurita Andrés, Antognoni Fabiana, Biondi Stefania, Maldonado Sara, Léon P., Bazile Didier. 2015. Assessment and adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) to the agroclimatic conditions in Mali, West Africa: An example of South-North-South cooperation. In : State of the art report on quinoa around the world in 2013. Bazile Didier (ed.), Bertero Hector Daniel (ed.), Nieto Carlos (ed.). Santiago du Chili : FAO, pp. 524-533. ISBN 978-92-5-108558-5

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Abstract : Quinoa's adaptation was tested in Mali, West Africa, where the difficult agroclimatic conditions are similar to those in central northern Chile. The traditional varieties used were predominantly from Chile ('A64', 'BO25', 'BO78', 'PRP', 'PRJ', 'UDeC9', 'R49', 'VI-1', 'Regalona', 'Mix'), plus two crop cultivars from Argentina ('Roja Tastina' and 'Sajama') and one varietyfrom Bolivia. Trials began in 2007 and continue today. They tested sowing in the rainy season (June-Oct.) and in the dry season (Nov.- Mar.). Pests, diseases and yields were assessed, taking into account also the grain storage conditions and more sustainable soil management (compost). Some Altiplano cultivars were recalcitrant ('A64', 'R49' and 'MIX'), while the traditional varieties from central southern Chile gave satisfactory yields (1-2 tonnes/ha). Ideally, seeds should be sown each season to avoid a reduction in germination vigour which is caused by the ambient humidity and high temperatures characteristic of in situ storage in tropical zones. The crop cycle is 90-100 days for the accessions from Chile and up to 108-119 days for the accessions from Argentina. The panicles can be attacked by fungal diseases that reduce productivity in the rainy season. The presence of phytophagous insects (Bemisia, Aphis and Aspavia genera) was observed, as well as Coccinellidae, which are their natural predators in biological control. Quinoa has the potential to improve the supply of high quality protein in Africa. Pests in the rainy season and insect infestation can be controlled by adopting ecological management practices, using saponins from the same quinoa varieties. The limiting factor is the energy requirement for using water (not readily available in the dry season) and for mechanized threshing. The population's use and acceptance of quinoa can be expected to be high, on the basis of past experience introducing other crops from America (potato, maize and tomato) to this continent and given the culinary similarity with millet and rice. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés Agrovoc : Chenopodium quinoa, Pratique culturale, Adaptation, Facteur du milieu, Facteur climatique, Zone agroclimatique, Protection des plantes, Rendement des cultures

Mots-clés géographiques Agrovoc : Mali

Mots-clés complémentaires : Adaptation aux conditions du milieu

Classification Agris : F01 - Crop husbandry
F62 - Plant physiology - Growth and development
H10 - Pests of plants

Axe stratégique Cirad : Axe 1 (2014-2018) - Agriculture écologiquement intensive

Auteurs et affiliations

  • Coulibaly A., IPR (MLI)
  • Sangaré A., IPR-IFRA (MLI)
  • Konate M., IPR-IFRA (MLI)
  • Traoré S., IPR-IFRA (MLI)
  • Ruiz Karina. B, Universidad de Chile (CHL)
  • Martinez Enrique A., CEAZA (CHL)
  • Zurita Andrés, CEAZA (CHL)
  • Antognoni Fabiana, Université de Bologne Alma mater studiorum (ITA)
  • Biondi Stefania, Universita di Bologna (ITA)
  • Maldonado Sara, Universita di Bologna (ITA)
  • Léon P., INIA (CHL)
  • Bazile Didier, CIRAD-ES-UPR GREEN (FRA) ORCID: 0000-0001-5617-9319

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